Terms Breakdown

What is a Valor "session"?

A Valor session is a motion capture recording collected using the Valor mobile application and sensors. Each session can be categorized as either a free session, within an assessment, or as a standalone exercise.

Free Session

This is the Valor equivalent of a sandbox or free-to-move motion capture option and when recording one this becomes an individual Valor session.

Assessment

A Valor assessment is similar to a workout program or screening template which is essentially a container or group of multiple preset exercises. Each preset exercise in a Valor assessment is an individual Valor session.

Exercise

Valor also provides the ability to use our extensive 100+ list of exercises to choose from and record a standalone exercise if needed. This will also be captured as an individual Valor session.

Range of Motion

The Valor API returns primarily joint kinematics information, the most critical being range of motion for any movement or exercise recorded on the platform. In addition we provide velocity, acceleration, and deceleration statistics of a movement or exercise.
The full maximum, average, and average maximum across multiple repetitions of a movement are provided for each joint's range of motion, velocity, acceleration, and deceleration. These values help determine the effective mobility of an athlete during joint rehabilitation to skill based movements.

Inverse Kinematics Metrics

The following are all the inverse kinematics metrics present on the Valor platform for each session that are determined by our custom biomechanics driven model. Note: The model from which these joints and their metrics are derived is always calibrated to a 0 degree offset for each joint excluding left & right shoulder abduction/adduction which is calibrated to a 5 degree offset.
  • time - the time relative to the start of the session (sampled at 60 Hz)

Central Joints

  • waist_rotation - the global rotation of the pelvis (as defined by a horizontal line between the hip joint centers). Not augmented by handedness therefore clocwise rotation of the pelvis (to the right from start of session) is positive and counterclockwise rotation of the pelvis (to the left from start of session) is negative
  • waist_extension - the forward/anterior or backward/posterior tilt of the pelvis (as defined by the line between the hip joint centers). Anterior tilt is positive and posterior tilt is negative.
  • waist_bending - The side tilt of the pelvis (as defined by the line between the hip joint centers). Right tilt is positive and left tilt is negative.
  • lumbar_rotation - torso rotation around the spine relative to the pelvis. Rotating right is positive and rotating left is negative.
  • lumbar_extension - torso extension at the lower back relative to the pelvis, such that a positive extension is towards the player’s anterior/front
  • lumbar_bending - torso lateral bending relative to the pelvis such that bending towards the right is positive and towards the left is negative
  • trunk_extension - torso extension relative to the ground, such that a positive extension is towards the player’s anterior/front

Lower Body Joints

  • hip_flexion_l/_r - hip flexion (positive) and extension (negative)
  • hip_rotation_l/_r - hip external (positive) rotation and internal (negative) rotation. Best captured when performing range of motion specific testing for this angle
  • hip_adduction_l/_r - hip abduction (positive) and adduction (negative)
  • knee_angle_l/_r - knee flexion (positive) and extension (negative)
  • knee_valgus_l/_r - knee valgus (positive) and varus (negative). Analogous to knee abduction (positive) and adduction (negative)
  • ankle_angle_l/_r - ankle dorsiflexion (positive) and plantar-flexion (negative)
  • ankle_inversion_l/_r - ankle eversion (positive) and inversion (negative)
  • ankle_add_l/_r - ankle abduction (positive) and adduction (negative)
  • shin_angle_l/_r - shin angle relative to ground and an analog to ankle dorsiflexion/plantar-flexion. Bending shin forward is positive (ankle dorsiflexion) and bending shin backwards is negative (ankle plantar-flexion)

Upper Body Joints

  • arm_flex_l/_r - shoulder flexion (positive) towards to the front of the body and extension (negative) towards to the back of the body in the sagittal median plane
  • arm_rot_l/_r - shoulder external (positive) rotation and internal (negative) rotation. Best captured when performing range of motion specific testing for this angle (e.g. 90-90 shoulder rotation test)
  • arm_add_l/_r - shoulder abduction (positive) away from body's center and adduction (negative) towards body's center in the coronal/frontal plane
  • arm_horz_flex_l/_r - shoulder flexion (positive) and extension (negative) in the horizontal or transverse plane
  • elbow_flex_l/_r - elbow flexion (positive) and extension (negative)
Note: See images below for breakdown of shoulder movements and the conventional planes used to calculate the shoulder joint angles.
Plane Breakdown
Shoulder Definitions

Misc.

  • <joint angle>_vel - the derivative vs time of the joint angle in units of degrees / s
  • <joint angle>_acc - the second derivative vs time of the joint angle in units of degrees / s^2